Plate Load Test?

What is Plate Load Test? Plate load test (PLT) is an in-situ test to measure the bearing capacity of soil and to estimate settlement of foundations. It is applicable for clayey and sandy soils. The results of plate load test is a useful guideline for design of foundation and determination of safety factor. As it […]

Bearing Capacity of Soil?

In simple words, soil bearing capacity is the maximum load per unit area which is tolerable for soil without yielding or extreme deformation. It is a function of soil properties such as shear strength, density, permeability etc. The denser the soil is, the higher bearing capacity it has. As it is obvious, all structures is […]

Shear Locking Error

Shear locking error As it is said earlier, reduced integration elements are suffering hourglass effect due to their low bending stiffness. On the other hand higher bending stiffness of full integration elements might cause another numerical issue, called shear locking effect. Fully integrated first order elements, such as solid elements, Timoshenko beam elements, may exhibit […]

Reduced Integration VS full integration

In finite element (FE) methods, the  calculating of element stiffness is of a fundamental importance to compute the deformation of the element. Depending on the complicity and importance of the problem the stiffness matrix can be calculated by different accuracy. One of the well-known method for numerical integration of two-dimensional integration is Simpson’s rule, which […]

What is Hourglass and how to solve it

Hourglass and How to Solve It As it is discussed in previous articles, using reduced integration method is an effective solution to avoid shear locking of full integration elements which are subjected to bending moment. But using reduced integration elements has also its own drawbacks. First disadvantage of these elements is that the stiffness of […]