Residual stress and its consequences

What does residual mean? Residual stresses, also known as locked-in stresses, are referred to an specific amount of stress that exists in the absence of external loading or thermal gradients. So even if the members is not subjected t loading, it has s degree of internal stress. What causes residual stresses? many factors can cause […]

Strength reduction because of holes

Effect of holes in beams Obviously, any reduction in the cress section of steel members reduces the overall strength of the member. However, structural engineers need some mathematical terms to quantify this reduction. In this article I talk about the effect of holes in steel beams in terms of tensile, compressive and bending capacity. the […]

Concrete Creep

When a concrete member is subjected to a constant load, id deforms instantly based on what you have learned in mechanics of material. But amazingly there is another deformation that happens over a long period of time. In other words, a sustained load causes a degree of deformation a long time after the initiation of […]

Steel Bar Splicing

Splicing in an inevitable practice in construction of reinforced concrete structures. as you know steel bars are produced with a limited length, so engineers have to cut them in an appropriate way to minimized the waste and meet the requirement of structural design. To do this we connect smaller bars to reach the desirable length. […]

Pounding of adjacent structures

What is pounding As you know, when earthquake occurs buildings move. The response of each building is different from other depending on its stiffness, height, structural design and etc. Pounding is when the adjacent structure vibration extremely and strikes other buildings. This can cause extensive damage or even collapse of structures. pounding has been one […]