Plastic design vs elastic design

Plastic design vs elastic design: honestly, the difference between these two terms was one the biggest ambiguities when I was in college. Plastic and elastic and  designs are two different design approaches. Both of these methods are efficient to design an optimized steel structure. in the past, most of structural designers were reluctant to use […]

End return in welding

End return plays a significant role in welding. End returns, also known as boxing, are when we continue the fillet weld around the corner of a member. This  extension of the primary weld provide more resistance to ensure the perfect functionality of the connection is seismic loading. According to several codes use of end returns […]

Web crippling in steel members

Web crippling behavior: Web crippling failure is likely to happen when large concentrated forces are applied to thin-walled flexural members. American Iron & Steel Institute has defined four different crippling condition based on the location of failure (interior or exterior) and the number of loads involved (one or two). Figure below illustrates these conditions including […]

What is composite beam?

If the concrete floor is not attached to the underlying steel beams, floor and beams functions independently as a non-composite system. This way of design had been common for many years. However in the past decades, researchers found out if they design a sort of connectors between beams and concrete floors, the mechanical performance improves […]