# Shear Locking Error

Shear locking error As it is said earlier, reduced integration elements are suffering hourglass effect due to their low bending stiffness. On the other hand higher bending stiffness of full integration elements might cause another numerical issue, called shear locking effect. Fully integrated first order elements, such as solid elements, Timoshenko beam elements, may exhibit […]

# Reduced Integration VS full integration

In finite element (FE) methods, the  calculating of element stiffness is of a fundamental importance to compute the deformation of the element. Depending on the complicity and importance of the problem the stiffness matrix can be calculated by different accuracy. One of the well-known method for numerical integration of two-dimensional integration is Simpson’s rule, which […]

# What is Hourglass and how to solve it

Hourglass and How to Solve It As it is discussed in previous articles, using reduced integration method is an effective solution to avoid shear locking of full integration elements which are subjected to bending moment. But using reduced integration elements has also its own drawbacks. First disadvantage of these elements is that the stiffness of […]

# What is plane stress, plain strain, asymmetry?

What is plane stress, plane strain, asymmetry? Obviously, gaining insight before start modeling can be highly profitable in order to boast the precision and reduce the computational expenses. In this article, three main simplification concepts have been introduced. Plane stress assumption: an element is called to be under plane stress condition if the stress vector is zero across a […]

# Why ABAQUS is perfect for Civil Engineering

Why ABAQUS is perfect for Civil Engineering Obviously, Finite Element Method (FEM) is one of the most effective methods for numerical modeling. Among several pieces of civil engineering software, which are designed based on FEM,  Plaxis, SAP and Abaqus are probably the most well-known ones. In this article we give you a summary of some […]